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macedonian dynasty alexander the great

January 16, 2021

It was originally thought to have been the sarcophagus of Abdalonymus (died 311 BC), the king of Sidon appointed by Alexander immediately following the battle of Issus in 331. [68] Alexander left the government of Caria to a member of the Hecatomnid dynasty, Ada, who adopted Alexander. All three of these people had motive to have Philip murdered. They refused to be sent away and criticized his adoption of Persian customs and dress and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units. [240][241] An inscription from the temple, now housed in the British Museum, declares: "King Alexander dedicated [this temple] to Athena Polias. It was a wide, flat valley that, unlike Issus, would allow the Persians to take full advantage of their lopsided numbers, an estimated 250,000 Persian troops facing off against Alexander’s 50,000. The so-called "Alexander Sarcophagus", discovered near Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum, is so named not because it was thought to have contained Alexander's remains, but because its bas-reliefs depict Alexander and his companions fighting the Persians and hunting. [186], At Issus in 333 BC, his first confrontation with Darius, he used the same deployment, and again the central phalanx pushed through. [108] It remains unclear if Callisthenes was actually involved in the plot, for prior to his accusation he had fallen out of favour by leading the opposition to the attempt to introduce proskynesis. Rulers of antiquity. Athens sued for peace and Alexander pardoned the rebels. May 10, 2017 - Explore Peter Valenti's board "Alexander and the Diadochi" on Pinterest. [150] However, in a 2003 BBC documentary investigating the death of Alexander, Leo Schep from the New Zealand National Poisons Centre proposed that the plant white hellebore (Veratrum album), which was known in antiquity, may have been used to poison Alexander. [190] Olympias' influence instilled a sense of destiny in him,[196] and Plutarch tells how his ambition "kept his spirit serious and lofty in advance of his years". Eventually, the two sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name only. [16], This article is about the ancient king of Macedonia. Alexander counter-struck with a regiment of 1,500 mercenaries tasked with holding the right-hand position. Demades likened the Macedonian army, after the death of Alexander, to the blinded Cyclops, due to the many random and disorderly movements that it made. The Ptolemys coexisted as both Egyptian pharaohs as well as Greek monarchs. According to the ancient sources, the two sides fought bitterly for some time. For more than two centuries, the Achaemenid Empire of Persia ruled the Mediterranean world. [236], The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime. Alexander III was born in 356 B.C. [101], Alexander viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him. [106] The cities' locations reflected trade routes as well as defensive positions. [148][157], Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy in modern times. [6][c] He is often ranked among the most influential people in history. Ancient Antioch, Glanville Downey, Princeton University Press, 2015. He camped the Macedonian army in the hills above the battle site to fuel up and rest while he drew up a game plan. Although composed of various clans, the kingdom of Macedonia, established around the 8th century BC, is mostly associated with the Argead dynasty and the tribe named after it. [129] Alexander reached Susa in 324 BC, but not before losing many men to the harsh desert. [16], Alexander's most immediate legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. [16] Of these, Arrian is generally considered the most reliable, given that he used Ptolemy and Aristobulus as his sources, closely followed by Diodorus. This also showed Alexander's eagerness to fight, in contrast to his father's preference for diplomacy. [254] For example, Greek astronomical instruments dating to the 3rd century BC were found in the Greco-Bactrian city of Ai Khanoum in modern-day Afghanistan,[255] while the Greek concept of a spherical earth surrounded by the spheres of planets eventually supplanted the long-standing Indian cosmological belief of a disc consisting of four continents grouped around a central mountain (Mount Meru) like the petals of a flower. "[239] This inscription is one of the few independent archaeological discoveries confirming an episode from Alexander's life. Macedonia became the leading power of the Greek world thanks to king Philip II, who declared himself the Leader of a Greek Confederacy. Shortly after the extended controversy over iconoclasm, which more or less ended (at least in the east) with the regent Theodora reinstating icon worship in 842 CE, Emperor Basil I founded a new dynasty, the Macedonian Dynasty, in 867 CE. [273] In Sunni Islamic Persia, under the influence of the Alexander Romance (in Persian: اسکندرنامه‎ Iskandarnamah), a more positive portrayal of Alexander emerges. [77], When Alexander destroyed Tyre, most of the towns on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through western Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty, he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. Their works are lost, but later works based on these original sources have survived. [164], While Alexander's funeral cortege was on its way to Macedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily to Memphis. [106] Following Alexander's death, many Greeks who had settled there tried to return to Greece. As in Tyre, men of military age were put to the sword and the women and children were sold into slavery. [275] In the Shahnameh, Alexander's first journey is to Mecca to pray at the Kaaba. [266][267], Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander the Great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself. [212] Thus, rather than megalomania, his behaviour may simply have been a practical attempt at strengthening his rule and keeping his empire together. Initially, the Macedonians only conquered territories in Greece, fighting numerous city-states like Athens, Thebes, and Sparta. Tutored in his youth by Aristotle and trained for battle by his father, Philip II, Alexander the Great grew to become a powerful imperialist. [30] Philip marched on Amphissa (ostensibly acting on the request of the Amphictyonic League), capturing the mercenaries sent there by Demosthenes and accepting the city's surrender. Ancient commentators were divided about whether the ambitious Olympias promulgated the story of Alexander's divine parentage, variously claiming that she had told Alexander, or that she dismissed the suggestion as impious. “Just as Darius begins the charge, the Macedonians launch a devastating cavalry attack that goes right into the gap cunningly created by Alexander’s tactics,” says Wrightson. [271], Alexander the Great's accomplishments and legacy have been depicted in many cultures. Macedonian Empire The empire at its greatest extent under Alexander the Great The Macedonian Empire was forged out of the campaigns of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. in the small Kingdom of Macedonia. [187] In India, confronted by Porus' elephant corps, the Macedonians opened their ranks to envelop the elephants and used their sarissas to strike upwards and dislodge the elephants' handlers.[135]. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are hazy.[165]. His undermanned defeat of the Persian King Darius III at the Battle of Gaugamela is seen as one of the decisive turning points of human history, unseating the Persians as the greatest power in the ancient world and spreading Hellenistic culture across a vast new empire. A Macedonian, Ptolemy was born in 367 BC. Even as he watched the city burn, Alexander immediately began to regret his decision. He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third son of King Amyntas III of Macedon, and father of Alexander the Great and Philip III. [140], On either 10 or 11 June 323 BC, Alexander died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II, in Babylon, at age 32. In 336 BC Philip II had already sent Parmenion, with Amyntas, Andromenes and Attalus, and an army of 10,000 men into Anatoliato make preparations for an invasion to free the Greeks living on the western coast and islands from Achaemenid rule. When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they found Alexander in their rear and promptly surrendered, adding their cavalry to Alexander's force. [71] According to the story, Alexander proclaimed that it did not matter how the knot was undone and hacked it apart with his sword. His son and successor, Caracalla, a great admirer, visited the tomb during his own reign. Macedonian Dynasty The Egyptians, oppressed under the Persian rule, welcomed Alexander the Great with open arms when he entered the country in 332 B.C. Military academies throughout the world still teach his tactics. [157], Alexander's body was laid in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus that was filled with honey, which was in turn placed in a gold casket. [15] Alexander was raised in the manner of noble Macedonian youths, learning to read, play the lyre, ride, fight, and hunt. With these victories, he secured his northern frontier. [94], Alexander then chased Darius, first into Media, and then Parthia. Fearing the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, Alexander's army mutinied at the Hyphasis River (Beas), refusing to march farther east. By contrast, the Persian infantry was stationed behind its cavalry. Ptolemy's mother was Arsinoe.According to Satyrus the Peripatetic, Arsinoe was a descendant of Alexander I of Macedon and thus a member of the Argead dynasty, claiming ultimate descent from Heracles.Ostensibly, Ptolemy's father was Lagus, a Macedonian nobleman from Eordaea, but many ancient sources claim that he was actually … The earliest of these is Diodorus Siculus (1st century BC), followed by Quintus Curtius Rufus (mid-to-late 1st century AD), Arrian (1st to 2nd century AD), the biographer Plutarch (1st to 2nd century AD), and finally Justin, whose work dated as late as the 4th century. After a long pause due to an illness, he marched on towards Syria. [247], The core of the Hellenistic culture promulgated by the conquests was essentially Athenian. Omphis (Indian name Ambhi), the ruler of Taxila, whose kingdom extended from the Indus to the Hydaspes (Jhelum), complied, but the chieftains of some hill clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas (known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas), refused to submit. This would fit with the intended destination of Alexander's funeral cortege. At this point, Darius ordered a full-frontal charge on the rest of the Macedonian army, but it took time for his orders to reach his left flank. This cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen, and he eventually abandoned it. [49], Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demosthenes, regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens. [91] Plutarch recounts an anecdote in which Alexander pauses and talks to a fallen statue of Xerxes as if it were a live person: Shall I pass by and leave you lying there because of the expeditions you led against Greece, or shall I set you up again because of your magnanimity and your virtues in other respects? [70] At the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexander "undid" the hitherto unsolvable Gordian Knot, a feat said to await the future "king of Asia". [158] Other illnesses fit the symptoms, including acute pancreatitis and West Nile virus. [14] Such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at his instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception. Then he ordered the entire Macedonian line to march quickly to the right. [190] However, Ogden calculates that Alexander, who impregnated his partners thrice in eight years, had a higher matrimonial record than his father at the same age. [111], In general, Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander's campaign in Asia. Macedonia pertains to the Greek History and culture for 4.000 years. By the time of his death, he had conquered the entire. Although tradition attributed the "Byzantine Renaissance" to Basil I (867–886), initiator of the Macedonian dynasty, some later scholars have credited the reforms of Basil's predecessor, Michael III (842–867) and of the erudite Theoktistos (died 855). The Persian cavalry and archers were also legendary, as were the scythe chariots which cut down enemy infantry with their razor-sharp wheel hubs. [65][66] At first, all went well. The battle served as a coming-out party for 18-year-old Alexander, who bravely led the Macedonian cavalry charge that broke through the Athenian ranks and secured victory for the upstart kingdom. Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments, texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander were all lost. The Macedonian dynasty, descended from one of Alexander the Great's officers, that ruled Egypt for three centuries (323-30 B.C.E.). Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements. [33] At Corinth, Philip established a "Hellenic Alliance" (modelled on the old anti-Persian alliance of the Greco-Persian Wars), which included most Greek city-states except Sparta. He appointed Porus as satrap, and added to Porus' territory land that he did not previously own, towards the south-east, up to the Hyphasis (Beas). This ensured that Alexander would not be outflanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes, had a considerable advantage over the Persians' scimitars and javelins. [264][265], Arrian wrote that Aristobulus said that the Icarus island (modern Failaka Island) in the Persian Gulf had this name because Alexander ordered the island to be named like this, after the Icarus island in the Aegean Sea. At Termessos, Alexander humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city. [138][139] Hephaestion's death devastated Alexander, and he ordered the preparation of an expensive funeral pyre in Babylon, as well as a decree for public mourning. He had his cousin, the former Amyntas IV, executed. [102], In 329 BC, Spitamenes, who held an undefined position in the satrapy of Sogdiana, betrayed Bessus to Ptolemy, one of Alexander's trusted companions, and Bessus was executed. But he never made it home. Marching west into Illyria, Alexander defeated each in turn, forcing the two rulers to flee with their troops. But it was Alexander’s genius as a leader and battlefield strategist that secured his victory against an imposing adversary deep in enemy territory. At first, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more than defensive garrisons. [96] The Persian king no longer controlled his own destiny, and was taken prisoner by Bessus, his Bactrian satrap and kinsman. Alexander responded quickly, driving them from their territory. [148] His extraordinary achievements, coupled with his own ineffable sense of destiny and the flattery of his companions, may have combined to produce this effect. and defeated an all-star alliance of Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea. [157] Another recent analysis suggested pyogenic (infectious) spondylitis or meningitis. They were the founders and the ruling dynasty of the kingdom of Macedon from about 700 to 310 BC. [188], The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests that Alexander exhibited heterochromia iridum: that one eye was dark and the other light.[189]. [75][76] The men of military age were massacred and the women and children sold into slavery. [144][175], Perdiccas initially did not claim power, instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus, Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians. [203] He had great charisma and force of personality, characteristics which made him a great leader. Alexander the Great Basileus of Macedon … Wikipedia. He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara (a region presently straddling eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan), to come to him and submit to his authority. Despite his humble origins, he showed great ability in running the affairs … [e] As Pausanias tried to escape, he tripped over a vine and was killed by his pursuers, including two of Alexander's companions, Perdiccas and Leonnatus. The elephant had gold rings around its tusks and an inscription was on them written in Greek: "Alexander the son of Zeus dedicates Ajax to the Helios" (ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ Ο ΔΙΟΣ ΤΟΝ ΑΙΑΝΤΑ ΤΩΙ ΗΛΙΩΙ). The famous encounter between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic occurred during Alexander's stay in Corinth. [261], Emperor Julian in his satire called "The Caesars", describes a contest between the previous Roman emperors, with Alexander the Great called in as an extra contestant, in the presence of the assembled gods.[262]. [224] The Roman era writer Athenaeus says, based on the scholar Dicaearchus, who was Alexander's contemporary, that the king "was quite excessively keen on boys", and that Alexander kissed the eunuch Bagoas in public. Campaigning against the Greek city of Perinthus, Alexander is reported to have saved his father's life. [202], Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences. Alexander's will called for military expansion into the southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations. [78] After three unsuccessful assaults, the stronghold fell, but not before Alexander had received a serious shoulder wound. British historian Peter Green provided a description of Alexander's appearance, based on his review of statues and some ancient documents: Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing. After that victory he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of Porus (Indian name Puru), to whom he was charged to offer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life at the hands of his old enemy. [52] This reply apparently delighted Alexander, who is reported to have said "But verily, if I were not Alexander, I would like to be Diogenes. [60], According to ancient writers Demosthenes called Alexander "Margites" (Greek: Μαργίτης)[61][62][63] and a boy. Historiography and scholarship agree that Alexander the Great was Greek. Alexander's settlement of Greek colonists and the resulting spread of Greek culture in the east resulted in a new Hellenistic civilization, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire in the mid-15th century AD and the presence of Greek speakers in central and far eastern Anatolia until the Greek genocide and the population exchange in the 1920s. Alexander endeavoured to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea" and invaded India in 326 BC, winning an important victory over the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes. Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia, it was he alone who decided territorial divisions. [40] Philip exiled four of Alexander's friends, Harpalus, Nearchus, Ptolemy and Erigyius, and had the Corinthians bring Thessalus to him in chains. Whether motivated by Greek pride or the spoils of imperial conquest, Alexander picked up where his father left off and marched into Persia in 334 BC, where his army of 50,000 would be tested against the largest and best-trained fighting force in the known world. After quickly dispatching a small regional army near the town of Granicus, Alexander had his first real test against Darius and his Persian Royal Army near the coastal city of Issus. [105] The Greeks regarded the gesture as the province of deities and believed that Alexander meant to deify himself by requiring it. [b] At that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Beas River. At first, all went well. [143] In the second account, Diodorus recounts that Alexander was struck with pain after downing a large bowl of unmixed wine in honour of Heracles, followed by 11 days of weakness; he did not develop a fever and died after some agony. By N. G. L. Hammond, F. W. Walbank, p. xl, Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Warfare, J, Woronoff & I. Spence, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Peter Turchin, Thomas D. Hall and Jonathan M. Adams, ", Government of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), encounter between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic, Chronology of the expedition of Alexander the Great into Asia, Personal relationships of Alexander the Great, List of cities founded by Alexander the Great, Cultural depictions of Alexander the Great, Chronology of European exploration of Asia, List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources, "Guardian on Time Magazine's 100 personalities of all time", Harpokration, Lexicon of the Ten Orators, § m6, Advice to Young Men on Greek Literature, Basil of Caesarea, § 8, The Anabasis of Alexander/Book II/Chapter XIV/Darius's Letter, and Alexander's Reply – Arrian, contemporary Babylonian account of the battle of Gaugamela, Philostratus the Elder, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, § 2.12, "NZ scientist's detective work may reveal how Alexander died", "Was the death of Alexander the Great due to poisoning? [40] Alexander reacted by sending an actor, Thessalus of Corinth, to tell Pixodarus that he should not offer his daughter's hand to an illegitimate son, but instead to Alexander. Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at Hund,[115] supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality. [276] Alexander was depicted as performing a Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) many times in subsequent Islamic art and literature. [161][162] According to Aelian, a seer called Aristander foretold that the land where Alexander was laid to rest "would be happy and unvanquishable forever". [136] Alexander admired Cyrus the Great, from an early age reading Xenophon's Cyropaedia, which described Cyrus's heroism in battle and governance as a king and legislator. [106], A plot against his life was revealed, and one of his officers, Philotas, was executed for failing to alert Alexander. Always the savvy strategist, Alexander knew that he couldn’t rule the Greek mainland by fear and brute force alone. The Meaning of Ramanujan and His Lost Notebook - Duration: 1:20:20. [263] In addition, Pliny the Elder writes about this unsuccessful plan adding that the distance was 12 kilometres (7 1⁄2 mi), and the purpose was to cut a canal through the isthmus, so as to connect the Caystrian and Hermaean bays. [12], In his early years, Alexander was raised by a nurse, Lanike, sister of Alexander's future general Cleitus the Black. In the spring of 335 BC, he advanced to suppress several revolts. There, his closest friend and possible lover, Hephaestion, died of illness or poisoning. [225] This episode is also told by Plutarch, probably based on the same source. Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, §7.20- Greek, Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, §7.20- English, "The Mughal Sikander: Influence of the Romance of Alexander on Mughal Manuscript Painting", "Quintus Curtius Rufus, History of Alexander the Great", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alexander_the_Great&oldid=1000689553, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2015, Articles containing Persian-language text, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BALaT identifiers, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TePapa identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Construction of a monumental tomb for his father Philip, "to match the greatest of the, Conquest of Arabia and the entire Mediterranean basin, Development of cities and the "transplant of populations from Asia to Europe and in the opposite direction from Europe to Asia, in order to bring the largest continent to common unity and to friendship by means of intermarriage and family ties", "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 06:45.

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