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what happened in ussr in the 1930s

January 16, 2021

There was a movement of population from the country to the towns. In September 1934 the U.S.S.R. joined the League of Nations. Uniform Sale of Securities Act . On the other hand, the great Dneproges dam was a generally successful hydroelectric project on the largest scale. World War 2 began in the 1940s and ended in 1945. However, this difficult time period did not stop women from flocking to the shops to enjoy the new fashion craze that was arising. By the early 1940s, the problem of mass illiteracy was by … 1914: World War I breaks out in the Balkans, pitting Britain, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, USA and Japan against Austria, Germany and Turkey (400,000 Russian soldiers die in 1914 alone) 1916: Russia has already suffered almost two million deaths in WWI . Starting with the Kansas Securities Act in 1911, states adopted a variety of laws to protect investors from fraud and raise capital for business. In December Yezhov was removed from his police post, to be arrested in 1939 and shot in 1940. While previous purges under Stalin involved the persecutions of kulaks (wealthy peasants), Nepmen (people who engaged in private enterprise during the New Economic Policy of the 1920s), clergymen, and former oppositionists, the Great Purge is characterized by imprisonments and exec… By the autumn of 1938 it had become clear that the terror was dislocating the entire life of the country, including the economy—production actually declined in 1938–39. The country was submitted to an intensive campaign against hidden “enemies of the people.” This manifested itself both in a series of public, or publicized, trials, and in a massive terror operation against the population as a whole. The effects were long-lasting. The Civil War and the creation of the U.S.S.R. During the early 1930s several more were mounted, notably the “Metro-Vic” case, involving British and Soviet engineers, in April 1933, following the “Menshevik Trial” in March 1931. The local leaderships in Leningrad, in Ukraine, and elsewhere were almost annihilated. History of Coffee Makers. This time the charges included espionage, sabotage, and treason, in addition to terrorism. In the two latter cases (and in certain others) Stalin sought to have the offenders executed and was thwarted by a Politburo majority. The system became institutionalized. Later in the year Stalin insisted on nearly doubling this rate. This culminated in the much publicized Stakhanovite movement. This was a misapprehension. Kirov’s death was followed at once by a decree on the summary trial of terrorists. Over the next few years opposition was reduced to a few party groups who clandestinely discussed the removal of Stalin and the reversal of the disastrous economic policies: Sergey Syrtsov (candidate member of the Politburo), Besso Lominadze, and others in 1930; Mikhail Ryutin and other Rightists in 1931–32; Aleksandr Smirnov and others in 1932–33. Oddly. Arizona scientists reveal their newest discovery -- a ninth planet they name Pluto, … 6th January » The first Diesel engine diesel-engined automobile trip is completed, from Indianapolis Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City New York, New York. Top. The purges in the USSR started in the mid-1930’s and continued throughout the late 1930’s. Period: Sep 14, 1930 to Sep 1, 1939. Thereafter there were no substantial changes. The Five-Year Plan had not been finalized by the time it was announced in April–May 1929, though it had been expected to come into operation six months earlier. Meanwhile, not only in the U.S.S.R. but in the communist movement the world over, “Stakhanovite” became the favourite word for a “shock worker” in any economic—or political—field. ; 26th January » The Indian National Congress declares 26 January as Independence Day or as the day for Purna Swaraj named Poorna Swaraj ("Complete Independence") which occurred 17 years later. A vast publicity campaign ensued, and Stakhanovites emerged everywhere. On February 18, 1937, Stalin’s old ally and Politburo colleague Ordzhonikidze committed suicide. In May 1935 a Franco-Soviet treaty of mutual assistance was signed, and a Soviet-Czechoslovak treaty followed a few weeks later, though this treaty was only to take effect if France also came to the aid of the country under attack. It was, or was the basis of, a set of real governmental and economic actions. It was only then revealed by Soviet economists that the true rate of growth in production over the period (including that of the Second Five-Year Plan, slightly less strongly stressing heavy industry, which now followed) was only about 3.5 percent per annum, about the same as that of Germany over the same span of time. The plan was thereafter a permanent feature of Soviet life; the First Five-Year Plan was followed by a series of others. These are striking figures, though they did not change the U.S.S.R. into an urbanized country in the Western sense. Finally, on December 27, 1932, came the reintroduction of the internal passport, denounced by Lenin as one of the worst stigmas of tsarist backwardness and despotism. Stalin went on record in favour of the concessions to the more moderate policy proposed at the Congress. p.340 This was enhanced when, in the autumn of 1938, France and Britain were instrumental in having Czechoslovakia accept the Munich Agreement, the first step to that country’s disintegration and annexation, while the U.S.S.R. appeared to be the sole, though cheated, defender of collective security. There had been show trials even in early Soviet times, including that of the Socialist Revolutionaries in 1922 and the Shakhty case in 1928. Pluto was discovered as the solar system's ninth planet. Learn how and when to remove this template message, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Soviet Union, 16th Congress of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), "Igor Netto Bio, Stats, and Results | Olympics at Sports-Reference.com", "Soviet Union and Russian Players' in the World Cup Final Tournaments", "Статья из книги Ф.Раззакова "Свет погасших звезд, "Sergey Popov Bio, Stats, and Results | Olympics at Sports-Reference.com", "Рыжкин Владимир Алексеевич. As a result of the 16th Congress, held in June–July 1930, and a plenum of the Central Committee in December of that year, the Politburo consisted solely of Stalinists: Stalin, Kliment Voroshilov, Lazar Kaganovich, Mikhail Kalinin, Kirov, Stanislav Kossior, Valerian Kuybyshev, Molotov, Sergo (Grigory) Ordzhonikidze, and Yan Rudzutak, with Anastas Mikoyan, Vlas Chubar, and Grigory Petrovsky as candidate members, while Andrey Andreyev was head of the Central Control Commission, the party’s disciplinary body. Despite deep-seated mistrust and hostility between the Soviet Union and the Western democracies, Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941 created an instant alliance between the Soviets and the two greatest powers in what the Soviet leaders had … The industrial, engineering, and economic cadres, including those of the railways, were heavily purged. In September the NKVD chief, Yagoda, was replaced by Nikolay Yezhov, from whom the Yezhovshchina, the worst phase of the terror in 1937–38, took its name. The early months of 1937 had seen the defeat of the last attempt to restrain Stalin. This time around, disillusionment has come a … The 16th Party Congress signaled the end of the Right “deviation” as the 15th Congress had marked that of the Left. These years had in fact seen the establishment of a new social and economic system. One result was that there were continual organizational problems. In 1928, Stalin instituted a planned economy. 1914: World War I breaks out in the Balkans, pitting Britain, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, USA and Japan against Austria, Germany and Turkey (400,000 Russian soldiers die in 1914 alone) 1916: Russia has already suffered almost two million deaths in WWI . Events of 1930. The country was blanketed in extremes of adulation. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. But while these trials received considerable publicity they were not made the central feature of Soviet politics. It is impossible to estimate such intangibles as the level of genuine enthusiasm among the Komsomols sent into the industrial plants or how long such enthusiasm lasted. A secret appendix to the pact gave Eastern Poland, Latvia, Estonia, Bessarabia and Finland to the USSR, and Western Poland and Lithuania to Nazi Germany. At the same time in foreign policy Stalin turned to the bourgeois democracies as a counterweight to Germany. Hitler, planning his attack on Poland, understood these signals and initiated serious contacts with Moscow. The Great Purge, also known as the Great Terror, marks a period of extreme persecution and oppression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s. And few genuine economic incentives were available: in 1933 worker’s real wages were about one-tenth of what they had been in 1926–27. It is now clear that Stalin had no intention of becoming involved militarily. (It has since been demoted … A new Comintern policy emerged, to be formalized at that body’s Seventh Congress in July–August 1935: to work toward a United Front of Communists and Socialists, soon broadened to a People’s Front of all “left” parties. Their political effect was different. All independence of mind on the part of any of the Stalinist leadership had effectively vanished. Over the next two years almost all their senior colleagues were arrested, tried in secret, and executed: 3 of the 5 marshals, 13 of the 15 army commanders, 50 of the 57 corps commanders, and 6 of the 7 fleet admirals and admirals grade I. In 1933, he created the Central Purge Commission, which publicly investigated and tried members of the Communist Party for treason. 1936: Millions die in Stalin's Great Purge (through 1953) Top. A new group, headed by Grigory (Yury) Pyatakov, was now arrested, figuring in the second great trial in January 1937. Russia, Ukraine, Belorussia, Transcaucasia (present-day Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan) form Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. At the same time, pay and rations were linked to productivity. The USSR in the 1930s showed the benefits of having a planned economy. On that date Kirov was assassinated in the Smolny building at Leningrad, ostensibly by a disgruntled communist, whose access to his victim had been arranged by senior local officials of the NKVD (People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs), as the secret police, reorganized in 1934 under Genrikh Yagoda, was now called. The new workers’ stratum, given much money and prestige, reflected the increasingly caste-oriented nature of Stalinist society, of which the bureaucracy-intelligentsia was the most notable feature. The industrial growth rate originally laid down was 18–20 percent (in fact, this had already been achieved, at least on paper). Famine in USSR. In the Communist Party the Stalinist grip had become complete in 1930 with the expulsion of Bukharin, Tomsky, and Rykov from the Politburo and Rykov’s replacement as chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars (the leading group of government administrators). Despite these differences, no major industrialized market economy escaped significant economic losses from the Great Depression/Slump of the 1920s and 1930s. In the 30s, just like the other peoples of the Soviet Union, Armenians suffered from a large-scale campaign of political terror launched by Joseph Stalin. There was a marked increase in the attacks on the churches of the USSR throughout the 1930’s. He mercilessly supressed his opponenents. Even in 1940 just over two-thirds of the population was classified as rural and just under one-third as urban. Both cases were mainly concerned with sabotage. But meanwhile the U.S.S.R. had established a further claim to the allegiance of the European left. Zinovyev, Kamenev, and several score of their followers were arrested and sentenced in closed court to jail terms as having “political responsibility” for (though not yet direct involvement in) the murder. His First Five Year Plan called for rapid industrialization and "collectivization" of small peasant farms under government control. Under the Secret Protocols of the Pact (as amended later in the month) the Soviet Union received western Ukraine and western Belorussia, together with the three Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. There had been a number of concentration camps from 1918 on, and 65 existed in 1922. History was falsified on a massive scale to give him a major role in the Bolshevik underground, the Revolution, and the Civil War—in particular in the new “Short Course” Communist Party history, which became the basic text of Stalinism and sold 40 million copies throughout the world. In its initial form it prescribed goals for 50 industries and for agriculture and provided some relation between resources and possibilities, but over the period that followed it was treated mainly as a set of figures to be scaled upward. Thousands of writers, artists, scientists and political leaders were executed or exiled. This was given to Japan by the Treaty of Versailles. And there was a noticeable, if not a major, thaw, including the end of bread rationing in 1935. Development of the Soviet Union in the 1920's and 1930's Introduction The Soviet Union is also officially known as the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). It entirely escaped the negative effects of the Great Depression, which was one more (and the most serious) of the periodic crises of overproduction which are inevitable in a capitalist economy. Zinovyev, Kamenev, and 14 others confessed to terrorist plots in conjunction with Trotsky and were shot. July 1932 saw the abrogation of Article 37 of the 1922 Labour Code, under which the transfer of a worker from one enterprise to another could be effected only with his consent. At the same time France and Britain had belatedly seen that the only effective policy against German expansion was as strong an alliance as possible, and they too now sought Soviet support. At the same time unemployment relief was abolished on the grounds that there was “no more unemployment.” In January 1931 came the first law introducing prison sentences for violation of labour discipline—confined for the time being to railwaymen. Stalin’s agent Andrey Zhdanov took control of Leningrad, and from 1935 to 1939 almost all Kirov’s following was extirpated. In fact, as more recent Soviet analyses have made clear, the whole thing was little more than a publicity gimmick. Over the next four years the centre of political life in the U.S.S.R. was the exposure and suppression of ever-increasing circles of alleged plotters against the regime, all of them linked in one way or another with the Kirov case. The cultural world also suffered: several hundred writers were executed or died in camps, including such figures as Osip Mandelshtam, Boris Pilnyak, and Isaak Babel. A third response to the Depression was totalitarian communism. But militarily the “Winter War,” as the Russo-Finnish War of 1939–40 was called, started with a series of humiliating defeats for the U.S.S.R., and it was only in March that the sheer weight of numbers broke Finnish resistance. The same can be said of the Magnitogorsk foundries and other great factories. And these cases were presented as the crucial element in the country’s public life. It is now clear, in any case, that Stalin, if not in his public stance, felt threatened by any substantial relaxation and hampered by his inadequately obedient subordinates. Historical Events for the Year 1930. During 1937 and 1938 the terror reached its climax. Soviet Union from 1930 to 1940 (Efimov 1933) By the beginning of the 1930s, Stalin was in full in control of Soviet Union. However, the real breakthrough happened in 1930 when universal primary education was introduced in the USSR. But in any case the West was offering a pact that might or might not deter Hitler and that might lead to Soviet involvement in an uncertain war if it did not; whereas Hitler’s offer was of a great increase in Soviet territory and, at least for the present, peace. Stalin's Industralization drive … These were all fruitless, being exposed and denounced on short order. The primary task, as to an only slightly lesser degree throughout the Stalin epoch and even later, was the buildup of heavy industry. World War 1 began in 1914 and Great Depression happened in the 1930s. From November 1932 a single day’s unauthorized absence from work became punishable by instant dismissal. Mar 1917: Bending to riots by women, striking workers and defecting soldiers, … In the Communist Party the Stalinist grip had become complete in 1930 with the expulsion of Bukharin, Tomsky, and Rykov from the Politburo and Rykov’s replacement as chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars (the leading group of government administrators). It was not until the early 1960s that the population became equally urban and rural. 1924-1929: Joseph Stalin consolidates power; inaugurates first Five-Year Plan, collectivizes agriculture, industrializes; famine returns. At the end of 1934, on December 1, came an event that was to be crucial to the final establishment of the Stalinist system. The method as stated was no more than a rationalization (in the Taylorian or Fordian sense) of the arrangements for clearing debris, keeping machines ready, and so on, and in fact it involved a large effort by a support team of de-emphasized assistants. By the 1930s, and thanks to the Depression, that faith in globalisation’s ability to spread the wealth evenly had shattered. After the executions the only survivors of Lenin’s last Politburo were Stalin and Trotsky, the latter in exile in Mexico. February 18, 1930. The 1930s were dominated by the Great Depression in the United States and the rise of Nazi Germany in Europe. Major events in the last 100 years. The plan may be considered in two main aspects. In fact, Nazi rule was at first interpreted as a victory for the communists, in that capitalism had been driven to its last resource, of naked force, and must soon collapse. The fuse was first lit at the beginning of the 1930s, when Japan's aggressive Kwantung Army—on its own initiative—occupied China's Manchurian … Meanwhile in the communities of “Russia Abroad” the experimental impulse of Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes gave way in the 1930s to works that revealed only a tenuous sense of Russian identity. Already crippled by the debt they accrued from World War One, the European nation faced even tougher times following the ripple effects of Wall Street’s stock market crash. He was reported to have planned to criticize the new repressions at what came to be known as the “February–March” 1937 plenum of the Central Committee. At this time a further social and economic component of the Stalinist system became very important. And there were, from Stalin’s point of view, further signs of insubordination. But a decision was then taken to systematically utilize their labour. Stalin arranged the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany on August 23, along with the German-Soviet Commercial Agreement to open economic relations. In May 1937 eight senior generals, headed by Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky, were arrested, tortured, and, on June 11, shot on the usual charges. By mid-1934 it had become obvious that the whole conception was wrong. During the NEP there was a reduction in the number of prisoners, who probably only numbered some tens of thousands at the end of the decade. In the Soviet Union, the Great Depression helped solidify Joseph Stalin's grip on power. The mass graves of the victims remained secret until the late 1980s. Even then, fearing Allied involvement, Stalin granted terms little worse than those offered in 1939 and dropped the Kuusinen “government.” The U.S.S.R. gained the Karelian Isthmus, certain border changes in the north, and a base on the Gulf of Finland. A similar ultimatum was issued to Finland, but the talks broke down, and on November 30, 1939, the U.S.S.R. attacked the country and immediately set up a Democratic Republic of Finland, headed by the communist Otto Kuusinen. In fact, the USSR was regarded as an economic powerhouse in the 1930s. Japan in the 1920's and 1930's Timeline created by Adam-Hakeem Sayed Ahmed . Communism had taught people that religion was “the opium of the masses” ( Karl Marx ) and church leaders were arrested and churches physically shut down. Japan gets some territorial gain in the pacific. The system expanded further and became a regular feature of Soviet life. This reflected the Soviet desire of territorial gains. Between 1929 and 1932, some 12.5 million new hands were reported to have entered urban work, 8.5 million of them from the countryside (though it was ruled that kulaks should not be given jobs in the factories). Era of 1920's The act of the Russian Revolution which occurred in the 1917 led to the downfall of the Russian empire. Some suffered steep, others small, production declines; some recovered slowly, others more quickly. The FBI under J. Edgar Hoover went after gangsters, and Franklin D. Roosevelt became synonymous with the decade with his New Deal and "fireside chats." This unpopularity could not be expressed in a normal fashion, but there were many press reports of sabotage of, or assaults on, Stakhanovites by “backward” workers. The Soviets provided a few hundred tanks and aircraft and a few thousand military specialists, and in addition as many as 42,000 volunteers of the International Brigades were largely raised by the Comintern. The major factions opposing Stalin had been defeated by 1930. The second, which came later, was the claim that they had in fact secured unprecedented increases in production. The Germans invaded Poland on September 1, and Soviet troops entered the eastern part of that country on September 17. Their trial, held in secret, was publicly announced, but this was the exception. The officer corps as a whole lost about half its members. In fact none of the targets had been reached, or even approached. On the industrial side the 1930s were to be a period of Sturm und Drang. (It should be noted that from 1926 to 1934 the chairman of this commission did not serve in the Politburo: Ordzhonikidze 1926–30; Andreyev 1930–31; Rudzutak from 1931.) Stalin’s followers also progressively took over the Spanish government, especially concerning themselves with hunting down local Trotskyites. set impossibly high quotas to increase output of steel, coal, oil, and electricity to reach targets limiting consumer goods. In History. The Soviet Union had 13 percent, and Germany was third at 11 percent. Soviet Union - Soviet Union - Into the war: 1940–45: The period between the Pact of 1939 and the German invasion saw internal consolidation. • General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin Great Depression USSR Collectivizes Agriculture Pluto Discovered. During the 1930s, Stalin sought to eliminate all barriers to his complete and total exercise of power. U.S. protests Japanese aggression in Manchuria. 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