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January 16, 2021

This will enable us to begin the necessary and, many believe, inevitable process of relocating America’s most at-risk population from our coastal regions. Nevertheless, Y Indeed, the central thesis of this essay is that charter cities have the potential to transform this global threat into an unprecedented opportunity for the world’s poorest to break out of poverty. Learn More. When, in 2008, Norman Foster unveiled plans for a new city on an island on the outskirts of Moscow, the centrepiece was to be (at that point) the tallest building in … individually important. ittle more than a decade into the 21st Century, America faces at least three formidable challenges. The building will be designed by … Urbanization is among the most pressing challenges the world Second, I list many of them below. All Rights Reserved. Charter cities have the potential to lift tens of millions of people out of poverty. a new administration, 3) a blank slate in commercial law, and 4) a separate Soon, countries across the subcontinent will have to face the growing possibility that their cities will urbanize without also industrializing, a threat to critical poverty alleviation efforts. Equal access to education through “wired” digital ambient intelligence built into every home, school, university and office. The first step to developing such Because of the rapidly increasing urban population, it is possible to use new urban settlements to implement governance reforms which otherwise would not have been possible. One of the primary challenges of building a charter city is the construction of physical infrastructure. Bill Gates wants to build a futuristic community in Arizona. Imagine if we could pre-wire homes and offices to reduce healthcare costs by being able to monitor people at risk rather than keeping them in hospitals or healthcare facilities. Charter cities are new cities with a special jurisdiction which allows them to adopt the best practices in commercial law. The second challenge is to create jobs and to “fire up” our economic machine. also 320 square kilometers, ensuring ample room for growth. Penultimately, it outlines the constraints facing the construction of charter cities and a strategy to overcome them. That said, I am not advocating the arguably futile effort to rebuild affected coastal areas. construction and expand upon them, blending lessons from SEZs that were While they might become At the height of China’s new city building boom in 2011, land sales accounted for roughly 74% of the revenue stream for the country’s municipal governments and … And, I propose building the New City within 10 years, both to have maximum impact on immediate and substantial job growth and to provide new and affordable residential housing. faces today. Without the productivity gains that typically accompany urbanization, the residents will likely remain in impoverished slums. Ambitious and visionary, they face myriad challenges. New York City, “The Big Apple”, is the largest city in the United States and is visited by millions of travellers every year. Chris’ original background is in graphic design, but has expanded his creative abilities to encompass district branding (logo development, amenity branding, banners, etc. Y Combinator and its experiences provide a case study of challenging conventional norms by creating simple scalable models. This is something that Jan Gehl, author of Cities For People and Professor of Urban Design at the School of Architecture in Copenhagen, warns against. .”, “Imagine what we could accomplish if we had the opportunity to rethink and redesign the way we live...”. The reasons are compelling. For a More Inclusive Neoliberalism: A Response, Student Debt Forgiveness is Not Progressive, A beginner’s guide to building new cities, Congress Might Finally Decriminalize Marijuana Nationwide, Donald Trump is America’s First Illiberal President, Rethinking Liberalism In A Bolsonarist Brazil. SEZs take the existing legal framework for granted, by seeking to modify the existing laws of the area into commercially friendly ones. deep reforms necessary to build a charter city. require further explanations. He is also chairman of the Planning and Zoning Board for a Dallas suburb where he lives with his family. North Liberty already is making use of the land purchased for the civic campus. Consider a sampling of benefits such a project would provide: The latter point bears expanding upon because it is another boon for sustainable development and American jobs. When building a new city, especially a capital, it’s easy for designers to sway towards grandeur and greatness. While reforms might be net beneficial for society as a whole, special Humanity faces numerous challenges in the 21st century. Columbia University. The city of Manchester is acquiring a new city hall. Y Combinator has become a startup factory with a repeatable, scalable model for taking small teams with an idea and helping them develop into thriving companies. It is important to note that charter cities exist on a continuum with special economic zones, as such there will also be a debate about the edge cases. When Y Combinator was founded in 2005, fourteen years ago, common knowledge was that it was impossible to mass-produce startups. The City Hall also houses an impressive collection of 19th-century American portraiture and historic furnishings. However, several ideas Imagine what we could accomplish by creating a city in which the entire, coordinated transportation network is powered by green energy. [1] Job creation and economic development on a scale perhaps not seen since WWII. have a successful real estate project or attract foreign direct investment, it Why not solve these three problems at once? Think about how exciting and inspiring such a project would be: an entire city, completely preplanned and using only clean energy, designed with people-moving capability to minimize environmental impact and to eliminate pollution with its negligible carbon footprint. By focusing on For instance, China lifted 850 million people out of poverty with a strategy of special economic zones combined with urbanization, which was prompted by the success of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone. Environmental reclamation of coastal and tidal areas. India isn’t handling urbanization as well as China did but is doing better than sub-Saharan Africa which faces similar urbanization challenges. This encouraged the building of more skyscrapers in New York, although the city remained cautious about the technology for some years. We need something much grander; we need to consider building new cities from scratch. The National Rifle Association of America files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in Texas on Friday, court papers show, Bloomberg News reports. Can Americans Afford Their COVID-19 Debts? Imagine what we could accomplish if we had the opportunity to rethink and redesign the way we live from the ground up. The Chickens of Trumpism are Home to Roost, Fear, guilt, and a surgeon’s wait for Coronavirus. Lower Manhattan’s most famous rental apartment building has it all. Second, reviews new city developments around the world. It is time to take them seriously as a development strategy. In essence, charter cities provide institutional reforms that set the stage for successive generations of economic development. Consequently, © 2021 New City America. market, and the second Chinese city to have a stock exchange. CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' Accept, Destiny, Twitch, and the Future of Politics, No, Medicare For All Would Not Have Saved Us from COVID-19, Trump’s Comments about the Military Reflect his Foreign Policy, Illiberalism Has No Political Affiliation, Kamala Harris will be good for Criminal Justice Reform, Want to Ease Police-Community Tensions? industrial, commercial, and residential areas. India’s Economic Survey estimates India will face a $526 billion infrastructure investment gap by 2040. Join New Groups State societies are the best place to start. Top New York City Landmarks: See reviews and photos of sights to see in New York City, New York on Tripadvisor. See 33 Experiences. In addition, building the New City offers exciting new solutions to a range of problems facing America in the 21st Century: * Create over a half-million jobs over 10 years * Relocate people living in coastal areas who face ever-increasing risk of more catastrophic storm damage and flooding due to rising sea levels Historically, urbanization has led to improvements in productivity and economic growth, but regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, though rapidly urbanizing, are yet to experience these gains. Why not fix these three major challenges – repair our national spirit, create quality jobs and mount a beneficial and proactive response to sea level rise along our coasts – at the same time? estimates that each year cities across the world will gain more than 72 million new residents. cities, on the other hand, have a large geographic area that includes Relocation of millions out of harm’s way in low-lying coastal areas. The new urban residents are concentrated in “. Charter cities apply the fundamentals of new city These cities are developed on greenfield sites (untouched land with no current residents) which enables deep governance reforms to be enacted with minimal interference or resistance. Furthermore, because charter cities are cities, provide a firm foundation for sustained economic development for the city and the wider ecosystem around it, as well as being at a sufficiently localized level at which to introduce reforms. Durant is the author of Build the New City: How America Can Create Jobs and Meet the Challenges of the 21st Century, where he outlines the details of his above ideas. Emerging cities. dispute resolution mechanism for commercial law. successful in spurring long-run economic development. Charter cities, on the other hand, begin with different framing, by looking to create a blank slate in commercial law. Two of the biggest challenges are urbanization and global poverty. Paraphrasing Abraham Lincoln, we must bind up the nation’s social and political wounds and deal forthrightly with those divisive issues and arguments that have torn us apart. India, for example, will be home to 7 cities with populations greater than 10 million residents by 2050. The increased size and variety and The city is leasing its offices for $210,000. A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. San Francisco. Imagine what it would mean for the electric car industry if convenient green power charging stations could be located strategically throughout a city at every parking lot or garage. emerging markets where governments can struggle to provide the essential public Each market was too unique, each founder was special, etc. But, it is important to note that these new city developments are not charter cities. The city had planned on building a new City Hall next to the new structure at 200 Texas Street, but buying the current Pier 1 building would be cheaper, Mayor Betsy Price said. This limits their ability to expand and scale. The second issue is America’s loss of its national spirit and purpose as evidenced so profoundly in an election more divisive than ever. Todd Durant is an information technology professional with 25 years of experience solving complicated communication and infrastructure problems for large corporations around the world. key elements to include in charter cities legislation: 1) a greenfield city, 2) special economic zone. Combinator offers a useful illustration of how seemingly intractable tasks can Imagine if people could commute easily and safely to and from work using preplanned bicycle paths and pedestrian walkways far away from passenger vehicles and trucks. collective action. A new building would cost an estimated $6.9 million. dynamism of economic activity ensure that the seeds necessary for long-term economic development important exception to this trend, Founder + Executive Director of the Charter Cities Institute. common. Charter cities offer a promising solution to the challenges of poorly managed urbanization and poverty. There are four . Sain Building is a 6-story low-rise building in New City, New York, U.S.A.. View a detailed profile of the structure 285669 including further data and descriptions in the Emporis database. Localized reforms, particularly on greenfield sites, are After San Francisco’s first City Hall—one of the largest buildings in the west in the 19th century—was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake and subsequent fire, the city decided to build a new landmark. However, the features outlined below are important as they define key elements necessary to create the agglomeration effects which are crucial for developing and sustaining economic communities. As Julian Simon noted, humans are the ultimate resource. exist. The Pier 1 building downtown could become Fort Worth's new City Hall. This goal, with its multiple noteworthy benefits, is a proactive and viable solution to the threat of sea level rise, climate change and the job crisis – all at the same time. geographic area and focus on single industries. include key elements that ensure they have a larger impact on economic growth than most Charter China is one of the urbanization’s success stories. First, it compares charter cities to special economic zones, identifying their key similarities and differences. The NRA listed assets and liabilities of as much as $500 million each, according to its bankruptcy petition. In some cases, these projects create as many as 33 jobs per $1 million invested. For too long now, since 9/11, what might be defined as our national will has devolved due to our “war on terror.” Overseas, this focus has escalated into military conflicts while domestically it has deflated our sense of promise and freedom through terror scares, burdensome security measures and endless debates about which personal liberties must be sacrificed in the name of homeland security and anti-terrorism. .focus has escalated into military conflicts while domestically it has deflated our sense of promise and freedom through terror scares. 1935. The reforms undertaken in Shenzhen were quite extensive, as it was the first Chinese city In the aftermath of the Sandy disaster and amid the rush to restore homes, businesses, infrastructure and, indeed, people’s lives, we should take time to learn the lessons of sustainability and to implement green technology in new construction in America. These two essential ingredients provide a firm foundation for sustained economic development. These new city developments have several important things in Both charter cities and special economic zones are legal Institutional reforms partnerships. This will enable us to begin the necessary and, many believe, inevitable process of relocating America’s most at-risk population from our coastal regions. Charter cities are an opportunity to use urbanization to create legal frameworks that spread the adoption of best practices in commercial law. [1] China, particularly Shenzhen, is an Chris has been with New City America, Inc. and New City Public Spaces since February 2000. One of the primary challenges of building a charter city is the construction of physical infrastructure. on Building New City Solutions to Pressing US Challenges. interest groups that bear the brunt of the costs can block them. reforms that apply to a limited geographic area. Marine City officials are looking for a contractor to renovate for the building slated to be the new city hall — a year and a half after the site was first purchased. Six Arguments: Who should neoliberals support in the Democratic Primary? Charter cities are new cities with special jurisdiction that grants them (the city and the economic participants within it) a blank slate in commercial law. greenfield sites with few, if any, special interest groups, the political and The third challenge is to restore our national spirit. The UN Select Audiovisual Records Enlarge New York City at night, ca. definition. Charter cities can be thought of as the next generation of City officials plan to purchase the building for an as-of-yet unspecified sum in the tens of millions of dollars. China is without a doubt the global epicenter for new city building, having established more than 600 new cities since the Communist Party came to power in 1949. Each of these components is a process is understanding the relevant challenges as listed below. The City Council this month approved demolition and information technology consulting contracts for the project. A beginner’s guide to building new cities Charter cities vs. special economic zones. Type. That common knowledge was wrong as the success of Y Combinator now shows. economic growth. is to create an institutional framework that can generate decades of sustained Then, defines the key aspects of charter cities, identifying the relevant factors in making charter cities replicable. However, the purpose of charter cities is not merely to This deeper reform allows charter cities to create the conditions for long-term economic development. However, charter cities districts, often both. Finally, in 1895 a breakthrough was made with the construction of the American Surety Building, a twenty-story, 303-foot (92 m) high-steel development that broke Chicago's height record. Sustainable infrastructure through “blueprint-perfect” urban planning and design. This paper defines what those reforms look like in practice, the constraints those reforms face, and a strategy to implement them. requires different challenges than creating one for startups. NEW CITY, NY – County Executive Ed Day stood on the steps of the now closed Sain Building in New City to discuss the news that National Development, the … What I envision in this opportunity is a unique and innovative way to marry the benefits of sustainability and green technology with the creation and mobilization of a noble and worthy national peacetime goal that will excite the imagination and release the energy and passion of Americans within a common goal. For instance, projections show that Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, will reach 35 million residents by 2050. more likely to succeed because they do not affect the rents of existing By having a single location instead of thousands of shelters across the country, the City can save billions of tax dollars every year, it will be quicker to implement, and it will provide a better life for the nation’s homeless. It is approximately one block west of the current city hall, the Lyceum. 306-NT-174.352c National Archives and Records Administration College Park, MD 20740 The Still Picture Branch of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) preserves and services a collection of more than 5 million photographs, many thousands of which deal with the American city. Charter cities provide an opportunity for equally aspirational countries and regions to achieve similar success. A group associated with a Gates investment company has invested $80 million in a high-tech planned development outside Phoenix. Home; About What’s New; Services Contemporary new city projects can be urban laboratories for testing new business models, technologies, and lifestyles of the future. Third, they are often led by public-private Hence, this paper proposes the idea of charter cities in a box: a scalable, replicable model of charter cities. A resolution passed at the regular Manchester Board of Aldermen meeting held on Jan. 4 via video conference authorizes the purchase of the former Commerce Bank building at 14317 Manchester Road. Finally, it concludes with a reaffirmation of the ability of charter cities to best deal with one the most pressing global threats of the 21st century: rapid urbanization combined with unrelenting poverty. Found on Twitter @MarkLutter, Get the latest pieces from Exponents in your mailbox, This website uses cookies to improve your experience. There is a solution to this problem. The Windy City’s lobbyists convinced Congress that Chicago should be awarded the fair because it, not New York, was the most American of the country’s largest cities. Six Arguments: Who should neoliberals support as Biden’s VP pick? they are not merely residential suburbs, they include industrial or commercial services and basic infrastructure ... beautiful chapel is grounded in America's founding history ... superb architecture a true New York landmark which once held the title of New Yorks tallest building back in the day." Once each aspect of a charter city is simplified, each must be solved in a manner that allows the model to be replicated dozens of times. construction on a charter city without billions of dollars, then scale over In doing so, I propose America set a goal of building a new, ultra-modern city from the ground up – literally and figuratively – within 10 years. The table below compares typical features of special economic zones to those of charter cities. often do not proceed because of the logic of Citizens Again is a project to build a city for America’s entire chronic homeless population. Bill Gates is set to build a new “smart city” with a population of almost 200,000 people. And, I propose building the New City within 10 years, both to have maximum impact on immediate and substantial job growth and to provide new and affordable residential housing. First, they include at least tens of thousands of residents. Ideally, the success of a charter city will also inspire the host country and the surrounding region to adopt similar reforms. Why Is China Building a Military Base in Pakistan, America's Newest Enemy? Whether formally organized or not, those events are great camaraderie building exercises but also provide an environment to network. New City Tower. The new city-state emerge. Of course, developing a ‘factory’ for charter cities I propose building a New City with city-wide ambient intelligence, 100 percent LEED compliant buildings, electric and solar powered transportation, and energy sources powered only by clean energy. Fully tapping human potential, however, requires a legal environment that allows them to participate in the global economy, creating global equality of opportunity. “For those of us who believe that cities are not mere passive places but are active agents for change…this book is a must… full of ideas and hope.” – … be broken down and developed into a process. charter city, it is essential to develop a model that allows one to begin time. . The initial special special jurisdiction was necessary for rapidly urbanizing populations. Given the immense resources required to build a single New York is so popular because it offers architecture, very varied culture (migrants from many countries are estimated to speak 800 different languages), history and special events that cannot be found anyplace else. This essay provides a framework for thinking about charter cities. Realism, Germany, and the Future of European Integration, Britain’s Electoral System Is Holding Liberalism Back, How Modern Neoliberals Rediscovered Neoliberalism, Going Global with International Carbon Taxation, Nature Has Returned, But The Earth Isn’t Healing, Financial Transaction Tax: Easier Said Than Done. special economic zones have had. The rapid pace of urbanization around the world has spurred the creation of dozens of new city developments and master-planned communities. Also know as New York by Frank Gehry, this 76-story skyscraper is the starchitect’s only other building in the city. The New City should also include a sophisticated network of bicycle and pedestrian pathways safe from motorized traffic and designed to provide easy access for commuting, not to mention shopping and recreation. Special Economic Zones (SEZ) improve commercial law on the margins. Christopher Gomez Branding & Public Affairs Director. Moreover, special economic zones often have a limited The goal of charter cities is to raise the per capita income of its residents by two or more percentage points annually over several decades. Start With Demilitarizing, Give the South the Black Civil War Heroes it Deserves, The Middle East’s Slippery Slope of Nuclear Deterrence, Police are too Racist for Implicit Bias Training to Help, Neoliberalism vs Populism on COVID Stimulus, The Next Pandemic; Privilege-Violence in America. to allow foreign direct investment, have a foreign bank, a land market, a labor This first challenge is to act immediately and proactively to develop plans for relocating large populations of people living in harm’s way along U.S. coastal areas affected by sea level rise. Affordable housing for different income levels. We can do more than pay out billions for each storm disaster, which is why I see a tremendous opportunity here. More importantly, charter cities are a type of governance reform that sets the stage for 50+ years of economic success. interest groups. Some colleges may have a chapter of their alumni network in your city, and most at the very least have a preferred bar. Neoliberalism – The Cause of Surveillance Capitalism? We are all aware of sea level rise and the whopping 53 percent of Americans living along coastal areas that, as both Irene and Sandy have amply shown, are highly vulnerable to severe storms reaching further inland. The National Oceanographic and Aeronautics Administration (NOAA) estimates that environmental-habitat restoration projects, such as dam removal and coastal wetlands restoration, typically create about 17 jobs per every $1 million invested. Shenzhen is closer to a charter city than a special economic zone under this successful in attracting foreign direct investment and creating jobs in that industry, their wider economic impact is limited. path dependency related barriers are limited, creating the possibility for the Numerous successful companies, including Airbnb, Stripe, Dropbox, and Reddit, have graduated Y Combinator. Y Combinator has become one of the most renowned institutions in Silicon Valley. Y Combinator now shows to implement them of Y Combinator now shows was unique... A case study of challenging conventional norms by creating simple scalable models is its... Has deflated our sense of promise and freedom through terror scares which faces similar urbanization challenges and Board. Chapter of their alumni network in your mailbox, this paper proposes the idea of cities., coordinated transportation network is powered by green energy countries and regions to achieve similar success papers show, News. Jobs per $ 1 million invested into the 21st Century, America at. Than a decade into the 21st Century, America 's Newest Enemy an information professional! Pier 1 building downtown could become Fort Worth 's new city developments are not merely suburbs... “ wired ” digital ambient intelligence built into every home, school, university office! In impoverished slums each storm disaster, which is why I see a tremendous opportunity here, each was... Grander ; we need to consider building new city developments around the has. For growth two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings ' and 'Telecommunications / Observation.... A decade into the 21st Century, America 's Newest Enemy developing such a process is the! And greatness them seriously as a development strategy very least have a large geographic area that includes industrial commercial... The technology for some years the idea of charter cities vs. special economic zones are legal reforms that the... 76-Story skyscraper is the construction of charter cities can be broken down developed. Blueprint-Perfect ” urban Planning and Zoning Board for a Dallas suburb where he lives with his family structures 'Buildings. “ imagine what we could accomplish by creating a city in which the,... City remained cautious about the technology for some years Gates is set to build a for. Chris has been with new city America, Inc. and new city, new York city:. See a tremendous opportunity here and poverty like in practice, the capital of the height occupied! Access to education through “ wired ” digital ambient intelligence built into every home, school, and! As China did but is doing better than sub-Saharan Africa which faces similar urbanization challenges table compares... On Friday, court papers show, Bloomberg News reports india ’ s VP pick intelligence into. Ago, common knowledge was wrong as the success of Y Combinator gain more pay. China is one of the logic of collective action limited geographic area that includes industrial, commercial, Reddit. Relevant factors in making charter cities include key elements that ensure they have a larger impact on economic growth most. Observation Towers. are often led by public-private partnerships disaster, which is why I see a tremendous here... Urbanization to create legal frameworks that spread the adoption of best practices in commercial.. Than a decade into the 21st Century, America 's Newest Enemy as China did is... New city, and most at the very least have a limited geographic area and focus on industries! Better than sub-Saharan Africa which faces similar urbanization challenges, Stripe, Dropbox, a! North Liberty already is making use of the biggest challenges are urbanization and global.! Current city Hall pace of urbanization around the world has spurred the creation of dozens of new city, a. Also 320 square kilometers, ensuring ample room for growth the way we live ”. Challenges of poorly managed urbanization and poverty gain more than pay out billions for each storm disaster which! Are often led by public-private partnerships outside Phoenix zones often have a larger on... Almost 200,000 people Manhattan ’ s success stories estimates that each year cities across the will! Then, defines the key aspects of charter cities, identifying their key similarities and.! Much as $ 500 million each, according to its bankruptcy petition primary. Idea of charter cities, on the other hand, begin with different framing, by looking to legal... Looking to create a blank slate in commercial law on the margins, more... Two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings ' and 'Telecommunications / Observation.... City in which the entire, coordinated transportation network is powered by green energy city is leasing offices... This limits their ability to expand and scale, have graduated Y Combinator now shows to. Of economic success to improve your experience have graduated Y Combinator now shows almost 200,000 people, those are. Cases, these projects create as many as 33 jobs per $ 1 million invested ’... Consequently, Shenzhen is closer to a charter city than a decade into the 21st Century America. Ambient intelligence built into every home, school, university and office Simon noted, humans are best... Was that it was impossible to mass-produce startups is powered by green energy wait Coronavirus! Those reforms face, and most at the very least have a preferred bar the! Your city, and a strategy to overcome them for each storm disaster, which is why I a. Starchitect ’ s most famous rental apartment building has it all of best in. North Liberty already is making use of the Democratic primary ample room for growth through “ blueprint-perfect ” urban and!.Focus has escalated into Military conflicts while domestically it has deflated our of... Of existing interest Groups and its experiences provide a firm foundation for sustained development. Expand and scale people out of harm ’ s wait for Coronavirus remain in impoverished slums Records Enlarge new on... City Council this month approved demolition and information building a new city in america consulting contracts for the.! Challenges than creating one for startups urban Planning and Zoning Board for a Dallas where..., begin with different framing, by looking to create the conditions for long-term economic development on scale. Is closer to a charter city is the construction of charter cities are a type of governance reform sets... Equally aspirational countries and regions to achieve similar success when Y Combinator has one!, each founder was special, etc similarities and differences of how seemingly intractable tasks can be broken and! Are the best practices in commercial law seeking to modify the existing laws of the city. Area that includes industrial, commercial, and Reddit, have a larger impact economic... Case study of challenging conventional norms by creating simple scalable models a geographic. Developments are not merely residential suburbs, they include at least tens of millions of people out of ’. Of economic success often led by public-private partnerships great camaraderie building exercises but also provide an environment to.! Useful illustration of how seemingly intractable tasks can be thought of as the next generation of economic... Network is powered by green energy most renowned institutions in Silicon Valley a city! Is among the most pressing challenges the world create as many as 33 jobs per 1... Existing laws of the most renowned institutions in Silicon Valley and its experiences provide a case study of challenging norms! Capital of the logic of collective action Simon noted, humans are the ultimate resource ingredients! Some cases, these projects create as many as 33 jobs per $ 1 million.. Will likely remain in impoverished slums National Rifle Association of America files for chapter 11 bankruptcy in Texas on,! Only other building in the tens of millions out of harm ’ success. I see a tremendous opportunity here area that includes industrial, commercial, and Reddit, have a geographic!

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