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z notes biology

January 16, 2021

temperature and pH o Air provides oxygen 20.3 Uses of Enzymes for aerobic respiration in fungus Pectinase: o Water-cooled jacket  Fruit juices are extracted using pectinase (breaks down removes heat to maintain temperature pectin) of 24C. Blood cells and large  The nervous system consists of two parts: proteins cannot pass through. Smart Notes Online provides help to the students by classifying resources, such as Books, Revision Guides, Notes, Past Papers, Mark schemes and Examiner reports. Chinese – Second Language – 0523 Complete AS and A level Biology Past Papers Cambridge International AS and A Level Biology builds on the skills acquired at Cambridge IGCSE (or equivalent) level.  Increases conc. leaves o Summer & early autumn: sucrose goes from  Water passes photosynthesizing leaves to root stores, through the cortex cells by osmosis 9. first third of the oviduct (from the ovary) where one Contractions cause amniotic membrane to break and combines with the egg.  Starvation: losing strength & finally dying because of  Translocation moves organic molecules (sugars, amino lack of food acids) from source to sink. PAGE 14 OF 35, CIE IGCSE BIOLOGY//0610  Process of vaccination: 11.2 Structure oHarmless pathogen given which has antigens oAntigens trigger an immune response by lymphocytes  Cartilage (in trachea): prevents the trachea from which produce antibodies collapsing during absence of air and also to protect it oMemory cells are produced that give long-term immunity  Ribs: to protect vital organs and blood vessels and expands and contracts (and efficient breathing)  In controlling the spread of disease, it is important to consider hygienic food preparation, good personal  Intercostal (internal & external) muscles: situated hygiene, waste disposal and sewage treatment between the ribs that create and move the chest wall  Passive immunity: short-term defence against a  Diaphragm: produces volume and pressure changes in pathogen by antibodies acquired from another the thorax leading to the ventilation of the lungs individual, e.g.  To destroy a pathogen, antibody molecules must be  Then either destroyed  Antigen: protein/ by being ingested by made which are exactly the right shape to fit into carbohydrate on surface phagocytes, or the molecules (antigens) on the outside of the pathogen. of solute outside cell > conc. Home | About | Help | Legal | Blog | @trello | Trello API | About | Help | Legal | Blog | @trello | Trello API substances are reabsorbed back into the blood capillary.  Fast: no need to find  No variation  Liver is the site of breakdown of alcohol and other toxins mate, fertilise etc.  The human body has many natural defences against  Lymph vessels collect lymph and return it to the blood. CIE. Notes. Biological Molecules; 5. deposited on a framework of collagen fibres  Gall bladder: stores bile from liver Neck: in between crown and root, it is the gums  Bile: produced by liver and stored in gall bladder, its role is to emulsify fats, to increase surface area for the action of enzymes.  The fact that it is recessive means that a heterozygous person can be a carrier: they have the allele but it is not expressed.  Labour: The uterine muscular wall contract and cervix  Sperm then swim through the cervix and oviducts to the tries to relax, then contractions get more frequent. same species. Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O PAGE 16 OF 35, CIE IGCSE BIOLOGY//0610  Collecting ducts: reabsorbs water into blood and store 5. Biology – 0610 – IGCSE – 2009.  Fewer trees means 19.8 Human Population Growth less photosynthesis FACTORS FAVOURING FACTORS CONTROLLING  Trees are usually Decreases Increases burnt (combustion) GROWTH: GROWTH:  Decomposition of Lower infant mortality, Disease, famine, war tree trunks (respiration) higher life expectancy, better nutrition, better housing, better sanitation, 19.5 Population medicine, vaccination  Population: a group of organisms of one species, living in  The human population is becoming stable (stagnation) the same area at the same time due to: o better education (particularly for women), so they  Community: all of the populations of different species in work instead of getting married and having children an ecosystem o better living conditions, fewer people die, fewer births needed  Ecosystem: a unit containing the community of o cities, reduced need for physical labour on farms organisms and their environment, interacting together, o family planning e.g. Methods of contraception more  Prevention: effective being you can see things most directly looked.. 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